Marine Debris


The following discussion was adapted from information appearing on the web site of the California Coastal Commission:

Millions of Americans enjoy the nation’s coastline and waterways everyday. However, many of those people are unaware how their daily activities, from driving a car, to not properly disposing of their garbage, or even throwing a cigarette butt on the ground, can impact the plants and animals off our shores. This debris can harm or kill beach organisms. Pollution also makes using the beach less enjoyable for humans and can result in illnesses in swimmers, surfers and other ocean enthusiasts. Solving our water pollution problems requires everyone’s involvement.

How Does Trash Become Marine Debris?

Look around the next time you walk down the street. When it rains, trash on sidewalks and streets accumulates in the gutter and is swept into your city’s storm drain system. Most storm drain systems discharge directly into the nearest waterway, which eventually flows to the ocean. Trash may also be dumped directly into the ocean by recreational and commercial boaters, and it is often left on the beach by beach-goers.

Trashing Our Beaches

We love our coast and ocean – nine out of ten Californians will visit the beach at least once this year and the statistics are similar in most other coastal states. When people arrive at the beach, they are finding a lot more than sand and surf. During a recent summer, Orange County, California collected enough garbage from six miles of beach to fill ten garbage trucks full of trash every week, at a cost to taxpayers of $350,000. Some counties spend even more.

In 1975, the National Academy of Sciences estimated that ocean-based sources, such as cargo ships and cruise liners, dumped 14 billion pounds of garbage into the ocean. In 1988, the U.S. signed onto MARPOL Annex V, joining 64 other countries that signed the international protocol that regulates ocean dumping and made it illegal to dump plastic into the ocean. Laws like MARPOL have reduced the amount of trash on our beaches and in our ocean. Even so, plastic pollution is still a major problem. A recent study found an average of 334,271 pieces of plastic per square mile in the North Pacific Central Gyre, which serves as a natural eddy system to concentrate material. 1* Learn more about this at

Results of more than 10 years of volunteer beach cleanup data indicate that 60 to 80 percent of beach debris comes from land-based sources. And debris in the marine environment means hazards for animals and humans. Plastic marine debris affects at least 267 species worldwide, including 86 percent of all sea turtle species, 44 percent of all sea bird species, and 43 percent of marine mammal species. 2*

* 1 Moore, C. J., S. L. Moore, M. K. Leecaster, and S. B. Weisberg, 2001. A comparison of plastic and plankton in the North Pacific Central Gyre. In: Marine Pollution Bulletin 42, 1297-1300.
* 2 Laist, D. W., 1997. Impacts of marine debris: entanglement of marine life in marine debris including a comprehensive list of species with entanglement and ingestion records. In: Coe, J. M. and D. B. Rogers (Eds.), Marine Debris — Sources, Impacts and Solutions. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 99-139

How Marine Debris Harms Wildlife

Common items like fishing line, strapping bands and six-pack rings can hamper the mobility of marine animals. Once entangled, animals have trouble eating, breathing or swimming, all of which can have fatal results. Plastics take hundreds of years to break down and may continue to trap and kill animals year after year.

Birds, fish and mammals often mistake plastic for food. Some birds even feed it to their young. With plastic filling their stomachs, animals have a false feeling of being full, and may die of starvation. Sea turtles mistake plastic bags for jellyfish, one of their favorite foods. Even gray whales have been found dead with plastic bags and sheeting in their stomachs. Plastic Almost 90 percent of floating marine debris is plastic. Due to its durability, buoyancy, and ability to absorb and concentrate toxins present in the ocean, plastic is especially harmful to marine life.

How Marine Debris Harms People

Beachgoers can cut themselves on glass and metal left on the beach. Marine debris also endangers the safety and livelihood of fishermen and recreational boaters. Nets and monofilament fishing line can obstruct propellers and plastic sheeting and bags can block cooling intakes. Such damage is hazardous and costly in terms of repair and lost fishing time. In one Oregon port, a survey revealed that 58 percent of fishermen had experienced equipment damage due to marine debris. Their average repair cost was $2,725.

How Does Reducing, Reusing, and Recycling Help?
Use Less Stuff

Many of our pollution problems are really problems of misplaced resources. For every item we recycle or reuse, that’s one less piece of trash that can become a part of the marine debris cycle threatening people and wildlife. Metal Nearly 75% of all metal is used just once. Recycling steel reduces air and water pollution and requires 70% less energy than producing it from raw materials.

Everything we use in our daily lives is made from natural resources such as trees, petroleum, sand, water, soil, and metals, many of which are non-renewable.

By throwing these materials into our landfills, we drastically reduce the remaining supply of non-renewable natural resources.

Be Part of the Solution

The debris that we collect from our beaches is a symptom of a much larger water pollution problem that is caused by everyday people doing every day things. Rain scours oil from parking lots, fertilizer from lawns, pet droppings from sidewalks and other contaminants from “nonpoint” sources and transports this toxic stew down storm drains and over land into the ocean. These toxins are poisoning marine life and our water sources. We can all be part of the solution by recycling used motor oil and repairing car leaks, picking up after our pets and switching to non-toxic products and improve other everyday practices to help keep our waterways clear and clean.

How Can I Help?

* Reduce, reuse and recycle at home, work and school.
* Buy products made from recycled materials with little or no packaging.
* Keep storm drains clean – they drain to beaches.
* Keep cigarette butts off streets and beaches.
* Properly dispose of fishing lines, nets and hooks.
* Volunteer for Coastal Cleanup Day, Saturday, September 20, 2003 (typically the 3rd Saturday in September) and for other local beach cleanup events.


Marine debris site from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Earth 911: Provides information on where to recycle and how to dispose of household hazardous waste, as well as details on local environmental events. (800) CLEAN-UP

Ocean Conservancy

For “Green” shopping: National Green Pages (800) 58-GREEN

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